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Gelatinization Index Certificate:
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Certificate Of Analysis (C.O.A.)
(The Microbiological Assay Certificate For Gelatinized Maca)
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Certificate Of Analysis (C.O.A.)
(The Microbiological Assay Certificate For Raw Maca)
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Certificate Of Analysis (C.O.A.)
(The Microbiological Assay Certificate For Pre-Cooked Maca)
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How The Root Of The Matter! Maca is Cultivated
Preparation of the land field:
It is carried out in the months of March and April. It begins cleaning the overgrowths and stones in order to turn over the ground. It is fertilized with sheep or camelidaes guano. In the preparation of the land field, it is possible to make plows of disks, yokes of oxen (animal traction) or the uses of chaquitaclla.

Sowing time:
It is carried out in the months of September to November. It is mixed first, the botany seed with ground or guano to get a better distribution
when you broadcast the seed. The covering of the seed is carried out with branches or by raking superficially for the land field to get the appropriate depth of sown field. Another way is the passing of a flock of sheep.

The cultivation is intensive in manpower; to make works like care and weed of overgrowths.

The maca is sowed in monoculture or in strips of lands with bitter potatoes; this association is generally made for the peasants to protect the cultivation of the potato of the attack of insects, since it is believed that the maca possesses products repellent volatile of insects, being used like an ecological control.

The lands field cultivated with maca should rest at least 3 to 5 years, because there is a generalized idea between the peasants that the maca depletes the nutrients of the ground, and since it has been proved by researches done by the peasants, the conclusion is that maca is a plant that extracts the nutrients of the ground strongly. 

Weeding:
Once emerge the plants, it will be tried to eliminate carefully the mixtures, as many times as necessary. (generally 2 times).

Avoiding Overgrown:
The density of the culture will be given proportionally to the degree of humidity and fertility of the ground, evidence of the rains in the period of germination in the first stage of growth, having to remove some plants if the cultivation has gotten grow very dense.

Elimination of the foliage:
When the foliage begins its yellowish it is maturation sign, many farmers opt to shepherd the sheep in these areas, disappearing all the foliage. Naturally, this practice allows to accelerate the process of maturation of the roots.

Harvest
After a lapse of 8 to 10 months from the sowing, one proceeds to this work carrying out it carefully since the roots should not wither and it is necessary to try to gather all of them.

Drying
Later on to the harvest, the roots are exposed to the sunbeam continuously and approximately for 4 months approximately, avoiding the exposure to the freezes, because if it happened the product would degenerate, taking the corklike appearance and not being able to be cooked. Soon the dried process is continuing in shade (in a garden shed) for 2-3 months. 

To obtain one kilo of dry product, it is required from 4 to 5 kilos of fresh maca, being determined the very best drying when biting the maca strongly, there is not any imprint of the teeth in the maca.

Conservation
Once drying, its conservation in the granaries or barns result to be practical. They could be stored by several years without any deterioration. It is convenient to prevent the attack of weevils in the warehouse, happening it generally when they are stored in sheltered areas.

Yield
The yield for cultivated hectare is about 5 Tm of fresh product approximately, or about 1.5 Tm of dry product.

Obtaining of botanical seed
For the propagation with sexual seed, it is necessary to carry out the following activities.

Selection of the best roots
After the harvest, the bigger and developed roots are selected, roots of a good constitution and maturity.

Construction of the well and planting
It is necessary to dig out about 50 or 60 cm of depth where ralees are placed orderly in lines, then they are covered with humid ground or manure, after 3O to 45 days it is observed that the offspring have sprouted.

Transplant
The small plants with their respective roots are sowed in the land field well prepared from 40 to 50 cm of distance between plants, then they require to be watered quickly every week until they flower and give us the seed. This occurs in the 6th or 7th month.

Gathering of the seed
After the seed has matured, it is time to pick it up and then to dry off the leaves and shafts, later the seed is thrashed and blew to obtain seeds of good quality and very clean.
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Maca Composition:
Analytical Composition of Maca Root

Components     Percentage
Water     10.4%
Proteins     10.2%
Lipids     2.2%
Hydrolyzable Carbohydrates     59%
Whole Fiber     8.5%
Ash     4.9%

Source: Table taken from: D. Deni, G. Migliuolo, L. Rastrelli, P. Saturnino, O. Schettino, "Chemical Composition of Lepidium meyenii, in Food Chemistry, 49, USA1994; and Garró, Virginia, Macro y micro elementos de la maca, Mimeo, Lima, 1999.

Vitamins

Vitamin     Mg
B1 Thiamine     0.20mg
B2 Riboflavin     0.35mg
C     10mg
E     87mg

Source: B1 and B2 from Chacón, Gloria, La importancia deLepidium Peruvianum (Maca) en la alimentación , y salud del ser humano, Lima, 1997; C and E from Garró Virginia, Op.Cit

Amino Acids

Amino Acid     Mg Concentration/G of Protein
Aspartic acid     91.7mg
Glutanic acid     156.5mg
Serine     50.4mg
Histidine     21.9mg
Glycine     68.3mg
Threonine     33.1mg
Crystine     N/D
Alanie     63.1mg
Arginine     99.4mg
Tyrosine     30.6mg
Phenylalanine     55.3mg
Valine     79.3mg
Methionine     28.0mg
Isoleucine     47.4mg
Leucine     91.0mg
Lysine     54.3mg
Tryptophan     N/D
H.O. Proline     26.0mg
Proline     0.5mg
Sarcosine     0.7mg

Source: data taken from D. Din, O Migliuolo, L. Ratrelli, P. Saturnino, O. Schettino, "Chemical Composition of Lepidium meyenii" in Food Chemistry, 49, USA, 1994.

Sterols (as steryl acetate derivatives) present in Maca

Sterol     Present Of Sterol Mixture     Retension Time (min.)
Brassicasteryl acetate     9.1     22.4
Ergosteryl acetate     13.6     23.8
Campesteryl acetate     27.3     25.0
Ergostadientyl acetate     4.5     27.5
Sitosteryl acetate     45.5     19.5

Source: table taken from A. Dini, G. Migliuolo and others, Op. cit. 1994

Fatty acids (as methyl ester derivatives) present in Maca

Fatty Acid     Percent of Methyl Ester Mixture
Dodecanoic (lauric)     0.8%
7-Tridecenoic     0.3%
Tridecanoic     0.1%
Tetradecanoic (myristic)     1.4%
7-Pentadecenoic     0.5%
Pentadecanoic     1.1%
9-Esadecenoic (palmitolete)     2.7%
Esadecanoic (palmitic)     23.8%
9-Heptadecenoic     1.5%
Heptadecanoic     1.8%
9,12 Octadecadienoic (linoliec)     12.6
9-Octadecenoic (oleic)     11.1%
Octadecanoic (stearic)     6.7%
11- Nonadecanoic     1.3%
Nonadecanoic     0.4%
15-Eicosenoic     2.3%
Eicosanoic (archidie)     1.6%
Docosanoic (behenic)     2.0%
15 Tetracosenoic (nervonic)     0.4%
Tetracosanic (lignoceric)     0.4%
Fatty acid saturated     40.1%
Fatty acid unsaturated     52.7%
Saturated/Unsaturated Ratio     0.76

Source: data from A. Dini, G. Migliuolo, L. Rastrelli, other, Op. Cit, (1994)

Mineral composition of Maca (mg/100 g fry matter)

Mineral     Mg/100g
Fe     16.6mg
Mn     0.8mg
Cu     5.9mg
Zn     3.8mg
Na     18.7mg
K     2050.0mg
Ca     150.0mg
Source: data from A. Dini, G. Migliuolo and others Op. cit, (1994) and Garró Virginia, Op. Cit (1999).

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